Can Succulents Survive Outdoor Winters? A Comprehensive Guide

Winter can be a challenging season for gardeners, especially for those who love growing succulents. Many people wonder if succulents can survive the harsh outdoor conditions during winter. The good news is that many succulents can thrive outside in winter, provided they are planted in the right environment and given proper care. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the various factors that affect the survival of succulents in winter, including temperature, sunlight, water, and soil. We will also provide tips on how to protect your succulents from frost, snow, and other extreme weather conditions. So, if you’re a succulent lover who wants to keep your plants healthy and thriving all year round, read on to discover the secrets of succulent winter survival.

Succulent Types and Their Winter Hardiness

Cold-Hardy Succulents

Cold-hardy succulents are capable of surviving and thriving in harsh winter conditions. These plants have evolved to withstand freezing temperatures, snow, and even frost. They can be an excellent choice for those living in areas with cold winters who want to grow succulents outdoors.

  • Ice Plant (Carpobrotus edulis)
    • Ice Plant is a hardy succulent that is native to South Africa. It can withstand temperatures as low as -10°C (14°F).
    • The plant has a unique ability to retain moisture in its leaves, which helps it to survive in dry and cold conditions.
    • It is also known for its edible leaves and fruits, making it a useful plant for culinary purposes.
  • Sedum (Sedum spp.)
    • Sedum is a popular cold-hardy succulent that is widely used in landscaping.
    • It can withstand temperatures as low as -20°C (-4°F) and is known for its ability to thrive in harsh winter conditions.
    • Sedum is also drought-tolerant, making it an excellent choice for those living in areas with limited water resources.
  • Jade Plant (Crassula ovata)
    • Jade Plant is a popular succulent that is known for its hardiness and ease of care.
    • It can withstand temperatures as low as -10°C (14°F) and is a popular choice for those living in colder climates.
    • The plant is also known for its ability to tolerate dry conditions, making it an excellent choice for those living in areas with limited water resources.

Semi-Tender Succulents

Semi-tender succulents are known for their ability to withstand temperatures slightly below freezing. These succulents are commonly found in warmer climates and can survive outdoor winters in USDA zones 9 and above. Some popular examples of semi-tender succulents include:

  • Aloe Vera (Aloe vera)

Aloe vera is a well-known succulent that is commonly used for its medicinal properties. It is a hardy plant that can tolerate temperatures as low as 20°F (-6°C) for short periods. However, it is best to protect it from frost and extreme cold weather by moving it indoors or providing it with some shelter.

  • Agave (Agave spp.)

Agave is a succulent that is native to the desert regions of the Americas. It is known for its unique blue-green leaves and spiky appearance. Agave can tolerate temperatures as low as 10°F (-12°C) for short periods, but it is best to protect it from frost and extreme cold weather by moving it indoors or providing it with some shelter.

  • Echeveria (Echeveria spp.)

Echeveria is a succulent that is native to Mexico and Central America. It is known for its colorful rosettes of fleshy leaves. Echeveria can tolerate temperatures as low as 20°F (-6°C) for short periods, but it is best to protect it from frost and extreme cold weather by moving it indoors or providing it with some shelter.

Tender Succulents

  • Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe spp.)
    • Description: Kalanchoe is a succulent plant with fleshy, oval-shaped leaves and upright stems. The plant produces clusters of small, vibrant flowers in shades of pink, purple, and red.
    • Temperature Tolerance: Kalanchoe can tolerate temperatures down to 40°F (4°C) but is generally best suited for indoor growth in colder climates.
    • Light Requirements: Kalanchoe prefers bright, indirect light but can tolerate low light conditions. Direct sunlight should be avoided during the winter months to prevent leaf scorch.
    • Watering: Water the plant sparingly during the winter months, allowing the soil to dry out between waterings. Overwatering can lead to root rot and other issues.
    • Additional Tips: Kalanchoe can be propagated through stem cuttings or leaf cuttings, making it a great option for beginner gardeners.
  • Christmas Cactus (Schlumbergera spp.)
    • Description: Christmas Cactus is a succulent plant with flat, rounded leaves and showy flowers in shades of pink, red, and white. The plant typically blooms in late fall and early winter.
    • Temperature Tolerance: Christmas Cactus can tolerate temperatures down to 40°F (4°C) but is generally best suited for indoor growth in colder climates.
    • Light Requirements: Christmas Cactus prefers bright, indirect light but can tolerate low light conditions. Direct sunlight should be avoided during the winter months to prevent leaf scorch.
    • Additional Tips: Christmas Cactus can be propagated through stem cuttings or leaf cuttings, making it a great option for beginner gardeners.
  • Zebra Plant (Haworthia spp.)
    • Description: Zebra Plant is a succulent plant with fleshy, pointed leaves that are striped with white bands. The plant produces small, white flowers in summer.
    • Temperature Tolerance: Zebra Plant can tolerate temperatures down to 40°F (4°C) but is generally best suited for indoor growth in colder climates.
    • Light Requirements: Zebra Plant prefers bright, indirect light but can tolerate low light conditions. Direct sunlight should be avoided during the winter months to prevent leaf scorch.
    • Additional Tips: Zebra Plant can be propagated through offsets or leaf cuttings, making it a great option for beginner gardeners.

Preparing Succulents for Winter

Key takeaway: Succulents can survive outdoor winters if they are grown in the right conditions and properly cared for. Cold-hardy succulents such as Ice Plant, Sedum, and Jade Plant can withstand harsh winter conditions, while semi-tender succulents like Aloe Vera, Agave, and Echeveria can survive in warmer climates with proper protection. Tender succulents like Kalanchoe, Christmas Cactus, and Zebra Plant require indoor growth in colder climates. Proper site selection, watering, and feeding are crucial for succulent survival during winter. Mulching and protective structures like greenhouses, cold frames, and winter sunrooms can also help ensure succulent survival. Container gardening with insulated containers is another option for overwintering succulents. Regular monitoring for signs of damage or stress and troubleshooting common winter issues like frost heaving and freeze damage are essential for succulent care during winter.

Site Selection

Selecting the right site for your succulents is crucial in ensuring their survival during the winter months. The following factors should be considered when selecting a site for your succulents:

  • Sunlight Exposure
    • Succulents require sufficient sunlight to carry out photosynthesis and produce energy. However, excessive sunlight can cause the leaves to become dehydrated and damaged. Therefore, it is important to choose a site that provides adequate sunlight exposure without being too harsh.
    • Partial shade is ideal for succulents during the winter months, as it helps to protect the plants from extreme temperatures and wind.
  • Soil Drainage
    • Succulents are susceptible to root rot, which can be caused by poor soil drainage. Therefore, it is important to choose a site with well-draining soil.
    • If the soil is heavy clay or sandy, it can be amended with organic matter such as compost or peat moss to improve drainage.
  • Shelter from Extreme Weather Conditions
    • Extreme weather conditions such as strong winds, heavy rain, and frost can cause damage to succulents. Therefore, it is important to choose a site that provides shelter from these conditions.
    • Succulents can be protected by planting them behind larger plants or structures, or by using wind barriers such as screens or fences. Additionally, mulching around the base of the plants can help to insulate the roots and protect them from extreme temperatures.
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Watering and Feeding

Succulents are known for their ability to store water, which allows them to survive in arid environments. However, during the winter months, it’s essential to adjust their watering schedule to ensure they don’t become too wet or too dry. This section will discuss the watering and feeding requirements for succulents during the winter season.

Water Retention

During the winter, succulents require less water as they are in a state of dormancy. Overwatering can lead to root rot, which can be fatal to the plant. It’s recommended to water succulents once a month or when the soil is dry to the touch. A good way to check if the soil is dry is to insert a finger about an inch into the soil. If it feels dry, it’s time to water.

Nutrient Requirements

Succulents require less fertilizer during the winter months as they are not actively growing. However, it’s still important to provide them with essential nutrients to maintain their health. A balanced fertilizer with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium can be applied at half the recommended strength during the winter.

Winter Dormancy

Succulents go into a state of dormancy during the winter months, which means they don’t require as much food as they do during the growing season. It’s important to avoid overfeeding succulents during this time, as it can lead to stress and damage to the plant. A light feeding with a balanced fertilizer can be applied every other month during the winter.

In summary, succulents require less water and fertilizer during the winter months. It’s important to adjust their watering and feeding schedule to ensure they don’t become too wet or too dry. With proper care, succulents can survive outdoor winters and thrive in the following growing season.

Winter Care Techniques

Mulching

Materials

When it comes to mulching succulents during the winter, there are a few key materials that are recommended. These include:

  • Leaves: Raking up fallen leaves in the autumn can be a great way to add organic matter to your soil. Make sure to remove any twigs or other debris before using them as mulch.
  • Straw: Straw is a great option for mulching succulents because it is coarse and allows for good drainage. This is important in the winter months, as excess moisture can be detrimental to succulents.
  • Pine needles: Pine needles are another great option for mulching succulents. They are acidic, which can help to lower the pH of the soil, and they also retain moisture well.

Application and Maintenance

Once you have chosen your mulching material, it’s time to apply it to your succulents. Here are some tips for application and maintenance:

  • Apply a layer of mulch that is about 2-3 inches thick.
  • Make sure to keep the mulch away from the base of the plant, as this can lead to rot.
  • Check the mulch regularly and remove any that has become compacted or wet.
  • If you notice any signs of fungal growth, such as mold or mildew, remove the affected mulch and replace it with fresh material.

Mulching is an effective way to protect your succulents during the winter months. By using organic materials like leaves, straw, or pine needles, you can insulate the soil and retain moisture, while also providing nutrients to your plants. Just be sure to apply and maintain the mulch properly to ensure the health of your succulents.

Protective Structures

Succulents are a popular choice for outdoor gardening due to their low maintenance and drought-tolerant nature. However, when it comes to winter, many succulents are not well-equipped to handle the cold temperatures and may suffer from frost damage or even death. Fortunately, there are several protective structures that can be used to keep succulents safe during the winter months.

Greenhouses

A greenhouse is a great option for protecting succulents during the winter. A greenhouse provides a controlled environment that is sheltered from the harsh weather conditions. It also allows for the maintenance of a consistent temperature and humidity level, which is ideal for succulents. Greenhouses can be made from a variety of materials, including glass, plastic, or even a simple wooden frame covered with clear plastic.

Cold Frames

A cold frame is a small, low-walled structure that is designed to provide protection to plants during the winter months. Cold frames are typically made from wood or metal and are placed over succulent plants to protect them from frost and snow. Cold frames work by capturing the warmth of the sun and trapping it inside the structure, which helps to keep the plants warm during the night.

Winter Sunrooms

A winter sunroom is a heated structure that is designed to provide a warm and sheltered environment for plants during the winter months. Winter sunrooms are typically made from glass or plastic and are placed over succulent plants to protect them from frost and snow. Winter sunrooms work by capturing the warmth of the sun and trapping it inside the structure, which helps to keep the plants warm during the night.

Overall, these protective structures can help to keep succulents safe during the winter months, allowing them to survive and thrive even in harsh weather conditions. By using these structures, gardeners can ensure that their succulents receive the protection they need to survive the winter and come back stronger in the spring.

Container Gardening

Container gardening is a popular method for growing succulents during the winter months. By using containers, you can move your plants indoors or to a sheltered location to protect them from harsh weather conditions.

Insulated Containers

Insulated containers are recommended for overwintering succulents. They help to maintain a consistent temperature and humidity level, which is crucial for the plant’s survival during the winter. Materials such as wood, Styrofoam, or clay pots with an inner lining of plastic or foil can be used to create insulated containers.

Winter Care Tips

Here are some tips to ensure your succulents survive the winter in containers:

  • Choose the right container: Select a container with drainage holes to prevent waterlogging. It is also essential to choose a container that is large enough to accommodate the roots of the plant.
  • Use a well-draining soil mix: A mix of perlite, sand, and peat moss or coco coir is ideal for succulents. Avoid using regular potting soil, as it tends to retain too much moisture.
  • Water sparingly: Overwatering is the most common cause of succulent death. Water your plants only when the soil is dry to the touch. It is better to underwater than overwater succulents.
  • Provide bright light: Succulents need plenty of light to survive, but direct sunlight can be too intense during the winter months. Provide indirect light by placing your container near a window or using grow lights.
  • Protect from frost: If temperatures dip below freezing, it is essential to protect your succulents from frost. You can do this by covering the container with a blanket or placing it in a cold frame.
  • Check for pests: Keep an eye out for pests such as mealybugs and scale, which can damage your plants. Isolate affected plants and treat them with insecticidal soap or neem oil.
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By following these tips, you can successfully overwinter your succulents in containers and enjoy their beauty year-round.

Troubleshooting Common Winter Issues

Frost Heaving

Frost heaving is a common issue that succulents may face during winter outdoor conditions. It occurs when the soil freezes and thaws, causing the roots of the succulent to heave out of the ground. This can be damaging to the plant and may even cause it to die if left untreated.

Symptoms

  • The succulent appears to be lifting out of the ground
  • The soil around the plant is cracked or disturbed
  • The plant is showing signs of stress, such as wilting or yellowing leaves

Prevention

  • Choose a location for your succulents that is sheltered from strong winds and extreme temperatures
  • Use a well-draining soil mix that is suitable for succulents
  • Avoid overwatering your succulents, as this can cause the soil to become waterlogged and lead to frost heaving
  • In areas with very cold temperatures, consider covering your succulents with a layer of mulch or a protective cover to insulate them from the extreme cold.

Freeze Damage

  • Symptoms
    • Browning or blackening of leaves, stems, or roots
    • Wilted or shriveled appearance
    • Frost or ice crystals visible on the plant
  • Prevention
    • Protecting succulents from extreme cold temperatures
    • Insulating the soil with mulch or other materials
    • Watering succulents carefully to avoid over-watering and under-watering
    • Providing adequate sunlight and ventilation for the plant
    • Adjusting the temperature and humidity levels in the growing environment
    • Regularly monitoring the plant for signs of damage or stress
    • Seeking professional advice or consulting relevant resources for further guidance.

Overwatering

Overwatering is a common issue that can affect succulents during the winter months. It is important to be aware of the symptoms of overwatering and to take steps to prevent it from occurring.

  • Yellow or brown leaves
  • Soft or mushy leaves
  • Root rot
  • Wilting or drooping

  • Allow the soil to dry out between waterings

  • Use a well-draining soil mix
  • Avoid waterlogging the soil
  • Water only when the soil is dry to the touch
  • Avoid fertilizing during the winter months
  • Keep an eye on the plant for any signs of overwatering

By being aware of the symptoms of overwatering and taking steps to prevent it, you can help ensure that your succulents will survive the winter months.

Bringing Succulents Indoors for Winter

Acclimating Succulents to Indoor Conditions

Light Exposure

Acclimating succulents to indoor conditions requires careful attention to light exposure. While succulents can tolerate low light levels, they need sufficient light to survive and thrive indoors. To acclimate succulents to indoor conditions, place them in a location with bright, indirect light. This will help them adjust to the lower light levels indoors without stressing them out. It’s essential to avoid direct sunlight, as this can cause the leaves to become scorched or discolored.

Temperature and Humidity

Temperature and humidity are crucial factors to consider when acclimating succulents to indoor conditions. Succulents are native to arid regions, and they are not used to high humidity levels. Therefore, it’s essential to keep them in a well-ventilated area with low humidity levels. The ideal temperature range for succulents is between 60-75°F (15-24°C). However, succulents can tolerate lower temperatures, but they may become dormant at temperatures below 50°F (10°C).

Watering and Feeding

Watering and feeding are essential aspects of acclimating succulents to indoor conditions. Succulents are used to dry conditions, and they don’t require frequent watering. Therefore, it’s essential to allow the soil to dry out between waterings. Overwatering can lead to root rot, which can be fatal to succulents. It’s also essential to avoid fertilizing succulents during the winter months, as this can stress them out and cause them to become weak and vulnerable to pests and diseases.

Selecting Containers and Soil

When bringing succulents indoors for the winter, it’s important to select the right containers and soil to ensure their survival. Here are some key factors to consider:

Container Materials

The material of the container can affect the plant’s ability to retain moisture and regulate temperature. Here are some options:

  • Pottery: Terracotta pots are porous and can help regulate moisture levels. However, they may crack if exposed to extreme temperatures.
  • Plastic: Plastic pots are lightweight, durable, and do not crack. However, they may not provide the same level of moisture regulation as terracotta.
  • Metal: Metal pots can conduct heat and cold, which can be beneficial in maintaining a consistent temperature. However, they may be heavy and expensive.

Soil Type

The soil type can also affect the plant’s ability to survive the winter. Here are some factors to consider:

  • Soil Drainage: Succulents need well-draining soil to prevent root rot. A mixture of sand, perlite, and peat moss or cactus mix can help provide good drainage.
  • Soil Moisture: Succulents need to be kept moist during the winter, but not waterlogged. A soil mix with sand and peat moss can help retain moisture while still allowing for good drainage.
  • Soil Nutrients: While succulents do not require high levels of nutrients, a soil mix with compost or aged manure can help provide essential nutrients for their survival.

In summary, selecting the right containers and soil is crucial for the survival of succulents during the winter. Consider the material of the container, drainage, moisture retention, and nutrient content when making your selection.

Creating a Winter Care Schedule

  • Watering
    • Succulents require less water during the winter months, as they are dormant and retain moisture in their leaves and stems. Watering once a month or when the soil is dry to the touch is generally sufficient.
    • Overwatering can lead to root rot, so it’s important to be cautious and allow the soil to dry out between waterings.
  • Feeding
    • Succulents typically don’t require fertilizer during the winter, as they are not actively growing. However, if you notice that your plant is looking pale or weak, a gentle feeding with a balanced fertilizer can help.
    • Be sure to follow the manufacturer’s instructions and avoid over-fertilizing, which can burn the roots and leaves of the plant.
  • Pest and Disease Management
    • Succulents can be susceptible to pests and diseases during the winter, especially if they are brought indoors and exposed to different environmental conditions.
    • Regular inspections of the plant for signs of pests, such as scales or mealybugs, and treating any issues promptly can help prevent the spread of disease.
    • Keeping the plant clean and well-ventilated can also help prevent the buildup of moisture and fungal growth.

Winter Gardening Projects with Succulents

Window Box Gardens

Design

Window box gardens are a popular way to bring a touch of greenery to your home during the winter months. The design of your window box garden will depend on the space you have available and the size of the succulents you choose. It’s important to ensure that the container you use is deep enough to accommodate the roots of the succulents, and that it has adequate drainage to prevent waterlogging.

A well-designed window box garden will also take into account the amount of sunlight the succulents will receive. Succulents need plenty of sunlight to thrive, so choose a location that receives at least six hours of direct sunlight per day. If you live in an area with limited sunlight, you may need to use grow lights to supplement the light your succulents receive.

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Plant Selection

When selecting plants for your window box garden, it’s important to choose succulents that are well-suited to outdoor growing conditions. Some popular options include:

  • Jade Plant (Crassula ovata): This plant is known for its thick, glossy leaves and its ability to tolerate cold temperatures.
  • Sedum (Sedum spp.): Sedums are a hardy and versatile succulent that can tolerate a range of temperatures and soil conditions.
  • Aloe Vera (Aloe vera): Aloe vera is a well-known succulent that is easy to care for and has medicinal properties.

Maintenance

To ensure that your window box garden thrives during the winter months, it’s important to provide regular maintenance. This includes:

  • Watering: Water your succulents sparingly, allowing the soil to dry out between waterings. Overwatering can lead to root rot, so it’s important to be careful not to overdo it.
  • Fertilizing: Succulents don’t require heavy fertilization, but a light feeding during the growing season can help promote healthy growth.
  • Pruning: Succulents may need to be pruned to keep them looking their best. Prune them back in the fall to encourage bushy growth.

By following these tips, you can create a beautiful window box garden that will thrive during the winter months.

Living Wreaths

  • Materials
    • Succulent plants of your choice
    • Planting soil
    • A small terra cotta pot or a wire wreath frame
    • Wire or twine to secure the plants
    • A sharp knife or scissors
    • Decorative embellishments (optional)
  • Step-by-Step Guide
    1. Choose the succulent plants that you want to use for your living wreath. You can select a single type of plant or mix and match different varieties to create a unique design.
    2. Prepare the plants by removing any dead or damaged leaves, and trim the stems to the desired length. Make sure to leave some foliage on the plants to maintain their health.
    3. Create a base for the wreath by attaching the succulent stems to the wire or twine using plant ties. Start in the center and work your way outwards, ensuring that the stems are securely attached.
    4. Once the base is established, continue adding layers of succulents around the wreath, arranging them in a circular pattern. Use the wire or twine to secure the plants in place as you go.
    5. If desired, add decorative embellishments such as beads, bows, or other garden ornaments to enhance the visual appeal of your living wreath.
    6. Place the wreath in a well-draining pot filled with planting soil, ensuring that the roots are well-covered. Water the soil thoroughly and keep it in a warm, sunny location.
    7. Regularly check the moisture level of the soil and adjust watering as needed to prevent the succulents from drying out or becoming waterlogged.
    8. Your living wreath is now ready to be enjoyed during the winter months and can be used as a beautiful centerpiece for holiday gatherings or as a festive addition to your outdoor garden decor.

Indoor Terrariums

Indoor terrariums are a popular way to display succulents during the winter months. By creating a closed environment, terrariums can help maintain humidity and temperature levels that are ideal for succulents.

Glass Container Selection

When selecting a container for your terrarium, it’s important to choose one that is at least 6 inches deep and has a wide opening. This will allow for proper air circulation and make it easier to add or remove plants as needed. Glass containers with a lid are also recommended, as they will help retain moisture and maintain a consistent temperature.

Layering Materials

In addition to the plants, there are several layering materials that can be added to your terrarium to create a healthy environment for your succulents. These include:

  • Activated charcoal: This helps to absorb excess moisture and control humidity levels.
  • Crushed gravel: This helps to promote drainage and provides a stable base for the plants.
  • Moss: This can be used to line the bottom of the terrarium and help retain moisture.
  • Stones: These can be used to create a natural-looking landscape and provide drainage for excess water.

Tips for Success

To ensure the success of your indoor terrarium, follow these tips:

  • Water your plants sparingly, as succulents do not need a lot of moisture. Allow the soil to dry out between waterings.
  • Place your terrarium in a location with bright, indirect light.
  • Monitor the temperature and humidity levels to ensure they stay within the ideal range for succulents.
  • Prune your plants regularly to maintain their size and shape.

By following these guidelines, you can enjoy the beauty of succulents all year round, even during the winter months.

FAQs

1. Can succulents survive outdoor winters?

Answer: Yes, many succulents can survive outdoor winters, but it depends on the species and the severity of the weather conditions. Some succulents, such as Sempervivum and Jade Plant, are cold hardy and can tolerate temperatures below freezing, while others, like Echeveria and Aloe Vera, are more sensitive to cold and should be protected from frost and freezing temperatures.

2. How do I prepare my succulents for outdoor winters?

Answer: To prepare your succulents for outdoor winters, you should first choose the right succulents for your climate. Next, make sure they are in a sunny location with well-draining soil. You can also protect them from frost and freezing temperatures by moving them to a sheltered location, such as a covered patio or a greenhouse. You can also mulch around the base of the plant to help insulate the roots. Finally, make sure to water them sparingly during the winter months to prevent root rot.

3. What should I do if my succulents are exposed to frost or freezing temperatures?

Answer: If your succulents are exposed to frost or freezing temperatures, you should take immediate action to protect them. You can cover them with a frost cloth or move them to a sheltered location. Make sure to check their soil moisture levels and water them if the soil is dry. If the leaves turn brown or black, it may be a sign of damage and you should trim off the affected areas. Finally, make sure to monitor the plant closely and take action if necessary to prevent further damage.

4. Can I still water my succulents during the winter months?

Answer: Succulents need less water during the winter months, so you should water them sparingly. Make sure the soil is dry before watering and avoid waterlogging the soil. You can also use a soak-and-dry method, where you soak the soil in water and then allow it to dry out completely before watering again. Avoid getting water on the leaves, as this can cause damage. Finally, make sure to monitor the plant closely and adjust your watering schedule as needed.

5. How do I care for my succulents during the winter months?

Answer: During the winter months, you should focus on providing your succulents with enough light and keeping the soil dry. Make sure they are in a sunny location and avoid overwatering. You can also fertilize them sparingly during the growing season to encourage healthy growth. If you live in an area with very cold temperatures, you may want to move your succulents to a sheltered location or use a frost cloth to protect them from frost and freezing temperatures. Finally, make sure to monitor the plant closely and take action if necessary to prevent further damage.

Can succulents stay outside during winter? | Succulents in Seconds

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